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Info needed on observers

                              (. .)


I am currently preparing a paper on payment systems for the Internet
and related issues.  I recently found out that so-called observers could
be placed on smart cards (in order to prevent double spending, or even to
prevent people from cheating on taxes...).

To be honest that's about all I know about observers and I am very eager
to find out more.  I am, however, having a hard time finding interesting
references on this subject.

Hence, all suggestions to get me started would be extremely welcome.
Questions of particular interest are: possible functions (and limits),
how 'real' are they already?, what about privacy?, ...

Many thanks in advance.


Leo Van Hove

Centre for Financial Economics
Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Free University of Brussels)
Pleinlaan 2
B-1050 Brussels
Vox: +32 629.21.25
Fax: +32 2 629.22.82
e-mail: [email protected]