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*To*: Cypherpunks <[email protected]>*Subject*: Internet, the cracking machine*From*: Wei Dai <[email protected]>*Date*: Tue, 10 Oct 1995 19:49:02 -0700 (PDT)*In-Reply-To*: <[email protected]>*Sender*: [email protected]

On Tue, 10 Oct 1995, Mike Fletcher wrote: > > Well, security bugs aside (and I've got the sun4.1.3_u1 and Win32 ns2b > distributions :) has anyone given any thought to using Java to do some > sort of Chinese Lottery attack. I was re-reading App. Crypto. last > night and it could be feasable. If you could get your key cruncher > thread loaded into a good many browsers to run when idle . . . . How > many estimated copies of NS are there? Anyone want to do the math? :) Ok, I'll bite. Let's figure out how many MIPS years it takes to brute force various keylengths (assuming 100 instructions per key): 56: 2e3 64: 6e5 80: 4e10 128: 1e25 Andrew M. Odlyzko in his paper "The Future of Integer Factorization" estimates the computing power of the Internet at 3e7, and the number of MIPS years to factor a 1024 RSA key to be 3e11. I think both numbers are probably off by a factor of 10 - Internet's computing power is probably closer to 3e8 and MIPS years to factor 1024-bit key may be closer to 3e10. So assuming that you can get the entire Internet to help you, the amount of time it takes for various attacks is: brute force keys of bit 56: 4 minutes 64: 1 day 80: 130 years 128: 3e16 years factor RSA keys of bit 512: 20 minutes 768: 50 days 1024: 100 years 2048: 1e11 years If you are reading this from an archive, divide the brute force numbers by 4**(your current year-1995), and the factoring numbers by 8**(your current year-1995), for a factor of 2 improvement per year in each of the following: average CPU power, number of computers on the Internet, and factoring algorithm. (Note that the above estimates are meant to err on the low side. I would be VERY surprised if anyone actually manages to accomplish any of the above attacks in the amount of time given.) Wei Dai

**References**:**Java idea***From:*Mike Fletcher <[email protected]>

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